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What is the difference between anode materials and cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries?

2021-05-15

The history of lithium-ion battery cathode materials is basically the development history of most lithium-ion batteries. From the earliest lithium cobalt oxide to today's lithium iron phosphate, the technology of ternary NCM and NCA, spinel materials, and cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries is also constantly developing. With the continuous improvement of the energy density requirements of lithium batteries for electric vehicles, traditional cathode materials can no longer meet these requirements, but the emerging lithium-rich manganese-based cathode materials can have a specific capacity of more than 300mAh/g and a voltage of 4.5V. With low toxicity and low price, it is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials.

The negative electrode is mainly graphite, which is a kind of C, while the positive electrode uses transition metal oxides, such as lithium cobalt oxide or lithium manganate, lithium iron phosphate and so on.

The positive electrode has a higher potential than the negative electrode, and the potential difference between the two forms the voltage of the battery.

The important difference between the positive electrode material and the positive electrode material of a lithium ion battery is the difference in potential. The potential of the positive electrode material is higher, and the potential of the negative electrode material is lower, thereby forming a larger potential difference, which is an important prerequisite for the formation of the battery.

The basic requirements of lithium ion battery cathode materials:

1. The material itself has a high electric potential, so that a large potential difference is formed between the anode materials, resulting in a high-energy density cell design.

2. The material has a large specific surface area, and there are many lithium insertion positions, and the lithium ion insertion channel is relatively short, so it is easier to insert and deintercalate.

3. The material has a large diffusion coefficient and strong intercalation and intercalation capabilities, so lithium ions can move quickly inside the material. This is a factor that affects cell resistance and power characteristics.

Lithium-ion battery anode materialBasic requirements

1. Allow more lithium ions to be reversibly deintercalated and have a high specific capacity.

2. The structure is relatively stable during charging and discharging, and the cycle life is long.

3. It can form a stable solid electrolyte membrane with the electrolyte to ensure high coulombic efficiency.


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